A Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) is a partnership between various local, state, and federal agencies, and private organizations that are charged with taking action against terrorism, which includes the investigation of crimes such as wire fraud and identity theft. The agencies that a JTTF comprises generally include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other federal agencies (the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and its notable components such as the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and the U.S. Secret Service (USSS), the U.S. Armed Forces, and the Department of State (DOS)'s Diplomatic Security Service (DSS)), state and local law enforcement agencies, and specialized agencies, such as railroad police.
JTTFs engage in surveillance, electronic monitoring, source development and interviews in their pursuits. FBI task forces obtain written memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between participating law enforcement agencies. The FBI provides funds to pay for participating agencies' expenses, such as officer overtime, vehicles, fuel, cell phones, and related office costs.
The many regional JTTFs coordinate their efforts through the interagency National Joint Terrorism Task Force. NJTTF is headquartered in Washington, D.C., and is composed of representatives from 35 federal agencies. The FBI's involvement with the JTTF falls under the Operational Support Branch of the FBI Counterterrorism Division.
The first JTTF was established in 1980 in New York City, with ten FBI special agents and ten New York City Police Department (NYPD) detectives. Prior to the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States had 35 JTTFs. Shortly after the attacks, FBI Director Robert Mueller instructed all FBI field offices to establish formal terrorism task forces. There are now 100 Joint Terrorism Task Forces nationwide, including at least one at each of the FBI Field Offices, except in Portland, Oregon.
The JTTF assisted in the investigation of the plot on Fort Dix. However critics such as David Cole, a law professor at Georgetown University questioned the use of paid informants enabling aspiring terrorists. "It makes sense in general—but when you're pressing people to undertake conduct they would have never undertaken without an informant pushing them along, there is a real question if you're creating crime, not preventing crime." 
In the 2009 Little Rock recruiting office shooting, suspect Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad was warned while he was in a Yemen jail by the FBI that he would be monitored by the U.S. government, and he was investigated by the JTTF upon his return to the United States after he was deported by the Yemen government. Months after his return, he was arrested for shooting Army soldiers at a recruiting office, killing one, telling authorities after his arrest that his motive was that he was a Muslim angry about the killing of Muslims by American troops in Afghanistan and Iraq. He has since changed his plea to guilty of participating in a jihadi attack on behalf of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
On October 2009, Tarek Mehanna was charged in a complaint with conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists. the complaint affidavit alleges that Mehanna and coconspirators discussed their desire to participate in violent jihad against American interests and that they would talk about fighting jihad and their desire to die on the battlefield. The case was investigated by the FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) members: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Massachusetts State Police, and the Lowell Police Department, in addition to other members.
In the Fort Hood shooting, suspect Nidal Malik Hasan was first brought to the attention of the FBI by internet postings which justified suicide bombings as military operations, but they were not judged to be a threat. Then in December 2008, the National Security Agency intercepted communications from an Army officer with a suspected terrorist, Anwar al-Awlaki. After examination by a JTTF, the e-mails which asked if Islam permitted the killing of soldiers who were to be sent to combat against Muslims, and how to send money to support Awlaki's causes could be sent without reporting to the government were judged to be consistent with research he had presented in a presentation which had warned of "adverse events" if Muslims were forced to fight other Muslims.
The FBI was also notified of large amounts of money that Hasan had wired to charities in Pakistan, but the FBI determined that the money "went to people not related to terrorism," On November 9, 2009, the FBI said that investigators believed Hasan had apparently acted alone. They disclosed that they had reviewed evidence which included the 2008 e-mail conversations but said they did not find any evidence that Hasan had direct help or outside orders in the shootings. According to a November 11 press release, after preliminary examination of Hasan's computers and internet activity, they had found no information to indicate he had any co-conspirators or was part of a broader terrorist plot "at this point". Although this was what they stressed were the "early stages" of the review, no contrary conclusions had been reached even after reports that the US government believed that Awlaki had been the target of airstrikes in Yemen, and that on December 26, 2009, investigators said that the suspect of the Northwest Airlines Flight 253 bombing admitted that he had attended camps in Yemen where al-Qaeda members including Anwar al-Awlaki had instructed him, blessed the attack, and provided the bomb.
On the morning of September 24, 2010, several homes of people active in campaigns against U.S. military intervention and Palestine and Columbia Solidarity were raided by FBI agents part of JTTFs. Four houses in Minneapolis were raided (including people involved with the 2008 Republican National Convention protests in Saint Paul), along with houses in Michigan, North Carolina, and Chicago. The search warrants focused on obtaining information from computers and other sources of alleged "facilitation of other individuals in the United States to travel to Colombia, Palestine and any other foreign location in support of foreign terrorist organizations including but not limited to FARC, PFLP and Hezbollah." No arrests were made, but agents subpoenaed activists to testify before a grand jury in Chicago in October, with reference to "material aid to terrorist organizations." 
According to the ACLU, documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act indicate that officers from the Colorado JTTF collected personal information on what the FBI termed "criminal extremists" but that the ACLU maintained were "peaceful protesters who have no connection to terrorism or any other criminal activity." 
A detective with the Fresno County Sheriff's Department and member of the JTTF, attended public meetings of Peace Fresno in 2003. The Sheriff's Department issued the following statement, "For the purpose of detecting or preventing terrorist activities, the Fresno County Sheriff’s Department may visit any place and attend any event that is open to the public, on the same terms and conditions as members of the public generally."
On April 28, 2005, Portland became the only city in the nation to withdraw from a JTTF.  As of February 19, 2015, the Portland city council approved permanently staffing the JTTF with two of its city's police officers.
In June 2008, according to City Pages the JTTF based in Minneapolis approached a source to infiltrate vegan potlucks and eventually report back to authorities on organized protesting activities in preparation for the 2008 Republican National Convention in nearby Saint Paul.
In the wake of the FBI's consistent performance in handling red flags of possible terrorist threats after the 2009 Fort Hood shooting case, Clarice Feldman of American Thinker asked "Aside from racing to the scene of the massacre and declaring that this was not an act of terrorism, what is the FBI's role in counter-intelligence? Isn't it time we stripped them of a task they regularly perform so poorly?" The New York Post headline stated "FBI blew off killer e-mail to al Qaeda Officials admit shrugging off gunman's e-mails to Qaeda". The article wrote "The clueless G-men said that at the time, they simply chalked up the chilling e-mails between Hasan and a radical imam and other terror-tied Islamic figures to his 'research' as an Army shrink... red-faced agency vowed to get to the bottom of things itself."
A Joint Terrorism Task Force ( JTTF ) is a partnership between various local, state, and federal agencies, and private organizations that are charged with taking action against terrorism , which includes the investigation of crimes such as wire fraud and identity theft . The agencies that a JTTF comprises generally include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other federal agencies (the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and its notable components such as the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and the U.S. Secret Service (USSS), the U.S. Armed Forces , and the Department of State (DOS)'s Diplomatic Security Service (DSS)), state and local law enforcement agencies , and specialized agencies, such as railroad police . JTTFs engage in surveillance, electronic monitoring, source development and interviews in their pursuits. FBI task forces obtain written memoranda of unders
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Joint Task Force Guantanamo ( JTF-GTMO ) is a U.S. military joint task force based at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base , Guantánamo Bay, Cuba on the southeastern end of the base. JTF-GTMO falls under US Southern Command . Since January 2002 the command has operated the Guantanamo Bay detention camps Camp X-Ray and its successors Camp Delta , Camp V, and Camp Echo, where detained prisoners are held who have been captured in the war in Afghanistan and elsewhere since the September 11, 2001 attacks . From the command's founding in 2002 to early 2017, the detainee population has been reduced from 779 to 41. As of April 2017, the unit is under the command of Rear Admiral Edward Cashman . History Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism In 1992, the United States established Operation Sea Signal to prepare for a mass migration of refugees from Haiti and Cuba. In 1994, Operation Sea Signal led to the creation of Joint Task F
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Emblem of Joint Task Force Lebanon (JTF-L) Joint Task Force Lebanon ( JTF-L ) is a U.S. European Command (EUCOM) operational unit established in 2006 and assigned responsibility for U.S. military support to the American Embassy in Beirut and to help U.S. Department of State led humanitarian assistance efforts that are providing aid to the people of Lebanon. Led by Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet Navy Vice Admiral John "Boomer" Stufflebeem , JTF Lebanon officially accepted the mission on August 23, 2006 from U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) units, which had been operating in the region since mid-July 2006 shortly after hostilities began between Israel and Hezbollah militants based in Lebanon. Its area of responsibility focuses on a "joint operation area" (JOA) around the country of Lebanon to include a wide portion of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. JTF-L includes numerous ships and air assets, and more than 2,400 Air Force, Army, Marine Corps and Navy active and reserve personnel. Most command element personnel are
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Joint Task Force (JTF) Gold was the Australian Defence Force unit formed to provide security and general support for the 2000 Summer Olympics which was held in Sydney, Australia . JTF Gold had a strength of over 4000 personnel drawn from all three services and was commanded by Brigadier Gary Byles . The JTF consisted of several unit sized elements, each responsible for specific security or general support. Notes The counter-terrorism aspect of JTF Gold was referred to as JTF 643, and was handled (in part) by the Special Air Service Regiment . The work of JTF Gold was referred to as Operation Gold - not to be confused with the US/UK Cold War intelligence gathering Operation Gold . References Joint Task Force Gold , Specialoperations.com Joint Task Force (JTF) Gold was the Australian Defence Force unit formed to provide security and general support for the 2000 Summer Olympics which was held in Sydney, Australia . JTF Gold had a strength of over 4000 personnel drawn from all three services and was commanded by
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The Criminal Investigation Task Force ( CITF ) is an organization created in early 2002 by the United States Department of Defense to conduct investigations of detainees captured in the War on Terrorism . It was envisioned that certain captured individuals would be tried by a military tribunal for war crimes and/or acts of terrorism . CITF was initially activated in February 2002 under a mandate from the Secretary of Defense addressed to the Secretary of the Army. The Secretary of the Army formally tasked the US Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID), and CID activated the Criminal Investigation Task Force solely for the purpose of conducting criminal investigations against suspected terrorists detained by US forces. Under the Secretary of Defense directive, the Army was directed to maximize the capabilities of all the Services, and therefore coordinated with the US Air Force and US Navy to assist. The CITF included members from four of five of the branches of the U.S. armed forces ; Army Criminal Investig
Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region ( JFHQ-NCR ) is directly responsible for the homeland security and defense of the Washington D.C. area as well as surrounding counties in Virginia and Maryland . Primarily made up of joint military units within the National Capital Region , the JFHQ-NCR assists federal and local civilian agencies and disaster response teams in the event that the capital area's security is or possibly could be breached by acts of terrorism. Officially activated on September 22, 2004, JFHQ-NCR is part of United States Northern Command . History MG Galen Jackman (center) and RDML Jan Gaudio (left) accept the framed activation order from Lt. Gen Joseph R. Inge (Deputy Commander of USNORTHCOM) officially recognizing the new Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region on September 22, 2004. After the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon on September 11, 2001 , military and civilian leaders recognized a need for strong cooperation and communication between
Joint Task Force Alaska ( JTF-AK ), headquartered at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson , Alaska , is a multi-service command composed of approximately 80 Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Coast Guardsmen and Department of Defense civilian specialists. The task force is a homeland defense component of U.S. Northern Command that coordinates the land defense of Alaska and coordinates military assistance to civil authorities. JTF-AK plans and integrates the full spectrum of DoD support to homeland defense and civil support to lead federal agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) . Prevention, crisis response and consequence management are capabilities included within the spectrum of support. In coordination with other federal, state and local agencies, JTF-AK constantly evaluates events and locations throughout the state of Alaska for their potential vulnerability as targets for aggression, such as terrorism. JTF-AK provides situational awareness to military commands and civilian agencies throughou
The AFP Joint Task Force - National Capital Region , known officially as the JTF-NCR or Task Force NCR , is one the Armed Forces of the Philippines ' Joint Task Forces assigned to combating Terrorism-Insurgency and act as support units to the Philippine National Police-National Capital Region in maintaining peace and order within Metro Manila . History A Kia KM-450 Truck assigned to the defunct NCR Command during one of its MEDCAP Missions in Bgy Sto. Domingo, Quezon City. AFP NCR Command was formally deactivated on 12 July 2012 following the retirement of its Commanding General, Lieutenant General Tristan M Kison AFP. Joint Task Force National Capital Region was formally activated that same day to assume the roles handed over by the former command, including providing assistance to the Presidential Security Group in securing the seat of power in Malacañan . Organization The following are the units operating under or attached with the AFP JTF-NCR: Base Units Headquarters & Headquarters Service Support C
CTD emblem. The Counterterrorism Division ( CTD ) is a division of the National Security Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation . CTD investigates terrorist threats inside the United States, provides information on terrorists outside the country, and tracks known terrorists worldwide. In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks , CTD's funding and manpower have significantly increased. The Division employs counterterrorism field operations organized into squads, the number of which varies according to the amount and diversity of activity in the local field office's jurisdiction. Larger field offices, such as Los Angeles , maintain counterterrorism squads for each major terrorist group, as well as for domestic terrorism and terrorist financing, while smaller field offices combined such responsibilities across two to three squads. Leadership The Counterterrorism Division is headed by Assistant Director, who reports to the Executive Assistant Director of the FBI National Security Branch . Organization T
The Emergency Task Force (ETF) is the tactical unit of the Toronto Police Services. It is mandated to deal with high risk situations like hostage taking, emotionally disturbed persons, high risk arrests, warrant service and protection details. The unit was created in 1965. An earlier non- SWAT Riot and Emergency Squad emerged in 1961. Part of its role is now undertaken by the ETF, Public Safety and Emergency Management and the Mounted Unit. The ETF is a fully manned 24 hours a day tactical response team. Unlike most SWAT teams, the ETF is not a pure paramilitary unit. The ETF mission profile includes terrorism and counter-terrorism threats in some extreme cases. The Emergency Task Force currently comprises 82 officers from all units who are tactically trained. There are seven Special Weapons Teams consisting of 10 officers each. The teams are on-call 24 hours a day, every day of the week. Each tactical team has a team leader, assaulters, snipers, bomb technicians, and a negotiator. All team members are train
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FBI Atlanta Field Office (also called the Atlanta Division) is a Federal Bureau of Investigation field office located in Chamblee, Georgia , in the Atlanta metropolitan area . The office is one of 56 field offices and 400 resident agencies located around the United States . The Atlanta Division has a wide jurisdiction that includes 159 counties that cover 57,906 square feet (5,379.6 m ). Early History The FBI Atlanta Field Office was formed in 1911 under the control of Special Agent Lewis Josiah Baley, who was the first and longest serving head of the field office in its history. He left the field office in 1919 when he was appointed the Chief of the bureau of Investigation. The Atlanta division played a key role in investigating the domestic terrorism case held in Atlanta in 1919. The office also played a role in the investigation on Alexander Berkman . First Special Agent in Charge of the FBI Atlanta Field Office The pressing matter of corruption within the Atlanta detention system had arisen once more.
The Multinational Joint Task Force ( MNJTF ) is a combined multinational formation , comprising units, mostly military, from Benin , Cameroon , Chad , Niger , and Nigeria . It is headquartered in N'Djamena and is mandated to bring an end to the Boko Haram insurgency . History The task force was first organised as a solely Nigerian force in 1994, during the administration of Sani Abacha , to "checkmate banditry activities and to facilitate free movement" along its northern border. In 1998 it was expanded to include units from neighbouring Chad and Niger with the purpose of dealing with common cross-border security issues in the Lake Chad region, with its headquarters in the town of Baga , Borno State . The Islamist insurgency in northern Nigeria intensified in the latter part of the 2000s, and security forces across the region were increasingly directly challenged by jihadist militant groups. Boko Haram and Ansaru were the most active and well known. In April 2012, the MNJTF's mandate was expanded to encompa
Joint Interagency Task Force West (JIATF-W, or JIATF West) is a standing United States military joint task force with the mission of combating drug-related transnational organized crime in the Indo-Asia-Pacific . JIATF West's area of responsibility (AOR) is that of United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) . JIATF West is one of two Joint Interagency Task Forces with a counter-narcotics mission. The other is Joint Interagency Task Force South . The task force is run as USPACOM's "executive agent" for counterdrug activities providing support to partner nation law enforcement. Approximately 166 active duty and reserve U.S. military forces; Department of Defense civilian employees; contractors; and U.S. and foreign law enforcement agency personnel are members of the task force. The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs of the United States Department of State describes the task force's mission as to "in cooperation with U.S. interagency and foreign partners, conduct activities to detect, d
The Marine Air-Ground Task Force ( MAGTF , pronounced MAG-TAF ) is a term used by the United States Marine Corps to describe the principal organization for all missions across the range of military operations. MAGTFs are a balanced air-ground, combined arms task organization of Marine Corps forces under a single commander that is structured to accomplish a specific mission. The MAGTF was formalized by the publishing of Marine Corps Order 3120.3 in December 1963 "The Marine Corps in the National Defense, MCDP 1-0". It stated: Since World War II in many crises the United States Marine Corps has deployed projection forces, with the ability to move ashore with sufficient sustainability for prolonged operations. MAGTFs have long provided the United States with a broad spectrum of response options when U.S. and allied interests have been threatened and in non-combat situations which require critical response. Selective, timely and credible commitment of air-ground units has, on many occasions, helped bring stabilit
Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force – North (CJSOTF–N), also known as Task Force Viking, was the U.S. joint task force responsible for the northern front during the initial period of the 2003 invasion of Iraq (OIF Rotation I). It secured Kirkuk , Mosul , and the northern oil fields ; prevented 13 Iraqi Army divisions from defending Baghdad or reinforcing defensive operations against American and British troops advancing in the south, and thwarted Turkish efforts to subvert Kurdistan . Task Force Viking conducted artillery observer , direct action , special reconnaissance , and unconventional warfare missions in order to disrupt and fix Iraqi forces arrayed along the "Green Line", the nominal 1991 demarcation line between the Kurdish northern provinces of Iraq and the remainder controlled by Saddam Hussein . CJSOTF–N was composed of the U.S. Army 's Special Forces units, 173d Airborne Brigade , 10th Mountain Division , Alpha Company 9th PSYOP Battalion , elements and the 96th and 404th Civil Affairs b
Combined Task Force 150 ( CTF-150 ) is a multinational coalition naval task force working under the 25-nation coalition of Combined Maritime Forces and is based in Bahrain established to monitor, inspect, board, and stop suspect shipping to pursue the " Global War on Terrorism " and in the Horn of Africa region (HOA) (includes operations in the North Arabia Sea to support operations in the Indian Ocean. These activities are referred to as Maritime Security Operations (MSO). Countries presently contributing to CTF-150 include , Canada, Denmark, France, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Other nations who have participated include Australia, Italy, India, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Thailand and Turkey. The command of the task force rotates among the different participating navies, with commands usually lasting between four and six months. The task force usually comprises 14 or 15 ships. CTF-150 is coordinated by the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF), a
Coast Guard on counterterrorism patrol in Upper New York Bay . Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in distance spanning The Narrows between Brooklyn (left) and Staten Island (right). Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism ) or anti-terrorism incorporates the practice, military tactics , techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. Counter-terrorism strategies include attempts to counter financing of terrorism. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency , counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop. History Special Branch detectives on an undercover operation at the London Docks , 1911. In response to the escalating terror campaign in Britain carried out
The Special Operations Command Central ( SOCCENT ) is a sub-unified command of the U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM). It is responsible for planning special operations throughout the USCENTCOM area of responsibility (AOR), planning and conducting peacetime joint/combined special operations training exercises, and orchestrating command and control of peacetime and wartime special operations as directed. The command is headquartered at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa , Florida. SOCCENT FWD (formerly known as Combined Forces Special Operations Component Command) is located at Al Udeid in Qatar . The Command's motto is Molon labe ( Greek for "Come and take them", reportedly said by King Leonidas I of Sparta before the Battle of Thermopylae in response to the Persian demand to surrender their weapons.) In the initial stages of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, the formation's commander was Rear Admiral Albert Calland . SOCCENT stood up Joint Special Operations Task Forces (JSOTFs). Beginning on 5 October
The Joint Anti-Terrorist Task Force ( JATF ) is a security agency of the Government of Uganda . The Museveni administration created the JATF through the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2002. The Task Force's main focus is fighting the Lord's Resistance Army , a militant cult operating in northern Uganda which the United States government designated a terrorist organization in 2001. Along with the Internal Security Organization (ISO) and the Chieftaincy of Military Intelligence (CMI), from which the JATF draws many of its members, the JATF has drawn international criticism with claims of torture and illegal detention of suspects – charges which the government has denied. See also Human rights in Uganda Uganda People's Defence Force External links Security Force Executions Reported (Human Rights Watch, October 3, 2003) The Joint Anti-Terrorist Task Force ( JATF ) is a security agency of the Government of Uganda . The Museveni administration created the JATF through the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2002. The Task Force's main fo
Combined Joint Task Force Paladin (‘’’CJTF Paladin’’’) was the International Security Assistance Force command responsible for Counter-IED efforts and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) during the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) . With military and civilian personnel spread across the entire country, CJTF Paladin provided EOD Technicians, Counter-IED trainers, intelligence personnel, and forensics labs to the ISAF Regional Commands. CJTF Paladin was established in 2005 to focus Counter-IED efforts due to the rising trend of improvised explosive devices during the conflict. During the draw down of troops and the end of the combat mission for NATO forces, CJTF Paladin was deactivated in December 2013, passing responsibility for all Counter-IED tasks to the 242nd Ordnance Battalion (EOD) , a significantly smaller unit. Its counterpart in the Iraq War was Task Force Troy. See also Participants in Operation Enduring Freedom Bomb disposal Improvised explosive device Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organi
Kerry Pettingill (born September 13, 1958) is a retired American police officer in the state of Oklahoma . Pettingill joined the Oklahoma Highway Patrol and served as its 25th Chief from early 2011 until late 2013 when he retired during the term of Governor of Oklahoma Mary Fallin . Prior to his service as Chief, Pettingill served as the Director of the Oklahoma Office of Homeland Security under Governor Brad Henry from 2004 to 2011. Career Kerry Pettingill earned his Bachelor of Science from Southern Nazarene University and joined the Oklahoma Highway Patrol (OHP) in 1982. During his time OHP, Pettingill served as a bomb technician, hazardous materials technician, and in tactical operations officer. He served as commander of the OHP Bomb Squad, OHP Tactical Operations Team, and as liaison to the Federal Bureau of Investigation 's Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF). In his position as OHP's SWAT commander, Pettingill was one of the first to respond to the Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal B
The 16th Air Expeditionary Task Force ( 16 AETF ) is a provisional United States Air Force unit assigned to the United States Air Forces in Europe . It was last activated at Izmir Air Base , Turkey on 1 December 2006, and inactivated on 30 April 2008. The 16 AETF may be activated or inactivated at any time. Formerly designated as Sixteenth Air Force , the command was the first newly established Numbered Air Force (NAF) by the USAF after World War II, It was activated in 1954 as a Joint Military Group to provide command and control of USAF activities in Spain, being designated a NAF in 1956. In 1957 16th AF was realigned under Strategic Air Command to provide command and control of SAC bases and B-47 Stratojet rotational units assigned and deployed to Spain and Morocco . In 1966 after SAC withdrew its forces from Europe, 16th AF became part of the United States Air Forces in Europe , providing command and control of USAFE forces initially in Spain and North Africa, and later in Italy and Turkey until 2006. It
U.S. Joint Special Operations Command The Joint Special Operations Command ( JSOC ) is a component command of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and is charged to study special operations requirements and techniques to ensure interoperability and equipment standardization; plan and conduct special operations exercises and training; develop joint special operations tactics; and execute special operations missions worldwide. It was established in 1980 on recommendation of Colonel Charlie Beckwith , in the aftermath of the failure of Operation Eagle Claw . It is located at Pope Field ( Fort Bragg, North Carolina ). Overview The JSOC is the "joint headquarters designed to study special operations requirements and techniques; ensure interoperability and equipment standardization; plan and conduct joint special operations exercises and training; and develop joint special operations tactics". For this task, the Joint Communications Unit is tasked to ensure compatibility of communications system
Task Force Kandahar (TFK) was the formation conducting the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Kandahar Province under ISAF Regional Command South . When it concluded its mission in summer 2011, the formation included a Canadian Forces battle group , three U.S. Army battalions (two of infantry and one of military police), an engineer regiment, a signal squadron, Operational Mentor and Liaison Teams (OMLTs), and contributions to Operational Mentor and Advisory Teams (OMATs) and the Police Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (P-OMLT). Origin Move from Kabul On 29 November 2005, the Canadian base Camp Julien in southwest Kabul officially closed. Canadian Forces (CF) components that were in Kabul under Operation Athena were relocated to Kandahar as part of the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism known as Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The Canadian component was initially designated Operation Archer . The Canadian Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) had already been at Camp Nathan Smith i
The 2011 Manhattan terrorism plot was a conspiracy by two Muslim Arab-Americans to bomb various targets in the Manhattan borough of New York City , New York , United States. They had planned to attack an unspecified synagogue and one of them expressed interest in blowing up a church and the Empire State Building . New York City law enforcement arrested the two suspects, 26-year-old Ahmed Ferhani and 20-year-old Mohamed Mamdouh, in a sting operation on May 11, 2011. Their plot was motivated primarily by "hatred of infidels and anti-semitism " according to the authorities. Plot On May 12, 2011, New York City law enforcement officials announced that two suspects, Ahmed Ferhani and Mohamed Mamdouh, had been arrested for trying to purchase weapons, including three pistols and hand grenades, as part of a terror plot to attack an unspecified Manhattan synagogue. New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg said both suspects wanted to attack a "major synagogue." Mr. Ferhani is to also have expressed an interest in blowing
Expeditionary Strike Group SEVEN/Task Force 76 (Amphibious Force U.S. SEVENTH Fleet) is a United States Navy task force . It is at one and the same time operationally a Task Force of the United States Seventh Fleet and administratively, the USN's only permanently forward-deployed Expeditionary Strike Group. It is based at the White Beach Naval Facility at the end of the Katsuren Peninsula in Uruma City , Okinawa , Japan. CTF 76 conducts operations throughout the U.S. Seventh Fleet area of operations, which includes the Western Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. History 10 January 1943 – Southwest Pacific Amphibious Forces – later called the Seventh Amphibious Force is formed in Brisbane, Australia. Participated in Operation Chronicle , the landing at Lae , the landing at Scarlet Beach at Finschhafen , Battle of Arawe and Battle of Cape Gloucester on the island of New Britain , 1944 – Participated in the landing at Saidor and Admiralty Islands campaign . 1950 – Supported UN during Korean War by stationing shi
Canadian Special Operations Forces Command ( CANSOFCOM ; French : Commandement des Forces d'opérations spéciales du Canada; COMFOSCAN ) is a command of the Canadian Armed Forces . It is responsible for all special forces operations that are capable of responding to terrorism and threats to Canadians and Canadian interests around the world. Composition CANSOFCOM is composed of: Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2) – Ottawa Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR) – CFB Petawawa 427 Special Operations Aviation Squadron (427 SOAS) – CFB Petawawa Canadian Joint Incident Response Unit (CJIRU) – CFB Kingston and Trenton CANSOFCOM also employs an integrated operating concept that combines the capabilities of all units in a Special Operations Task Force (SOTF) capable of completing assigned missions and tasks. Therefore, depending on the tasks at hand, various combinations of personnel from JTF 2, CSOR, 427 SOAS and CJIRU are assembled into a Special Operations Task Force, as appropriate, to accomplish assigned missions. The
Mike Brooks was a television news correspondent for CNN , currently based in Atlanta , Georgia . He appeared regularly on HLN's Nancy Grace 's show, and Prime News and gave significant coverage of the Anna Nicole Smith paternity controversy, as well as the Virginia Tech massacre . Brooks could be seen on Tru TV's In Session (formerly Court TV), where he provided commentary as their law-enforcement analyst. He is 6'7" tall. Brooks is a retired police detective , employed for 26 years by the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Police Department . He was assigned to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Joint Terrorism Task Force , and also served as an instructor for several public safety courses His work on the FBI Evidence Response and Rapid Deployment Team included assignments to the Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia , the United States Embassy bombing in Kenya , and the crash of TWA Flight 800 . Brooks was let go from Turner Broadcasting in October 2014. References "Advanced Media Relations Training Session" .
Tabitha Fringe Chase (a.k.a. Tabby Chase ; born July 24, 1977) is one of the first US activists investigated by the FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force to come forward publicly alerting the media to the targeting of activists under the USA PATRIOT Act . FBI incident The FBI domestic terrorism investigation began in 2004. She and her attorney Ken Driggs were interviewed by the FBI in 2005. Her redacted FBI file was obtained in 2006 by the American Civil Liberties Union via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The FBI has never commented to the media on her investigation, nor have they ever officially closed the investigation. The investigation itself was centered entirely upon her political affiliations with no direct indication of any wrongdoing on her part. No reason for the investigation to have ever begun was released either in the FOIA or to the media. She was one of two persons who disrobed publicly in protest of the proposed “ baggy pants ban” in Atlanta in 2007, creating a media row that helped to st
There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism . Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions. Moreover, governments have been reluctant to formulate an agreed upon and legally binding definition. These difficulties arise from the fact that the term is politically and emotionally charged. To avoid this kind of confusion, the most common definition of terrorism is used, which includes the following: Terrorism is the use of violence or threat of violence especially against civilians in the pursuit of political aims, religious, or ideological change. It can only be committed by non-state actors or undercover personnel serving on the behalf of their respective governments. It reaches more than the immediate target victims and is also directed at targets consisting of a larger spectrum of society. It is both mala prohibita (i.e., crime that is made illegal by legislation) and mala in se (i.e., crime that is inherently immoral or wrong) . The following criteria of viole
The Curious George Brigade ( CGB ) is an anarchist collective (or, as it styles itself, an "elusive anarchist thinktank ") based in Queens, New York . It is a part of the larger CrimethInc. network. The CGB produced the book Anarchy in the Age of Dinosaurs , a meditation on anarchism which displays tendencies of post-left anarchy along with videos, articles and a zine about urban anarchy. A CGB member, Elliott "Smokey" Madison, was arrested on September 24, 2009 in Pittsburgh , and had his Jackson Heights, Queens home (the anarchist collective known as Tortuga House) raided by the FBI and the Joint Terrorism Task Force on October 1, 2009. Writings A Swarm of Butterflies: A Fierce Defense of Chaos in Direct Action (2002) The End Of Arrogance: Decentralization and Anarchist Organizing (2002) The Inefficient Utopia, or How Consensus Will Change the World (2003) Anarchy in the Age of Dinosaurs (2004) Liberate Not Exterminate (2005) Insurrectionary Mutual Aid (retrieved February 28, 2014) See also Black Bridge Int
Ehsanul "Shifa" Sadequee (born July 30, 1986, in Fairfax, Virginia ) is an American who was arrested by the FBI on four terrorism charges, convicted, and sentenced to 17 years in prison, to be followed by 30 years of supervised release. Life Sadequee was born in Virginia and grew up in Atlanta, Georgia, the youngest of four siblings in a Bangladeshi-American family. He lived with his mother, brother, and sister at the family home in Roswell, Georgia before his arrest. He and Syed Haris Ahmed became active on several web forums discussing Islam. In March 2005, Sadequee and Ahmed both traveled to Toronto aboard a Greyhound bus, to meet with people met online, Fahim Ahmad , Jahmaal James and another youth, who were subjects of a Canadian anti-terrorism investigation. Police informant Mubin Shaikh later stated that he believed the two Americans had been asking whether they would be able to hide in Canada if they were to carry out attacks in the United States. On August 18, 2005, he travelled to his ancestral
In February 2006, three men in Toledo, Ohio (Mohammad Zaki Amawi, Marwan Othman El-Hindi, and Wassim Mazloum) were arrested and charged with conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists in Iraq and engage in violent jihad in their home town, as well as making verbal threats against the President of the United States. The investigation was conducted by the FBI and the Toledo Joint Terrorism Task Force , with the cooperation of an informant called 'The Trainer' who has a U.S. military background in security. The Cleveland FBI Special Agent in Charge C. Frank Figliuzzi and the U.S. attorney's general office credited the local Muslim and Arab-American community for passing along the information that lead to the arrest of the three terror suspects. During a February 2006 press briefing in Washington, DC, in the presence of the Deputy Director of the FBI John Pistole , Attorney General Alberto Gonzales accused the men of educating themselves on how to make and use explosives and suicide bomb vests by downl
"Keep Portland Weird" is a popular slogan that appears on bumper stickers, signs, and public buildings throughout Portland, Oregon and its surrounding metro area. It originated from the " Keep Austin Weird " slogan and was originally intended to promote local businesses , though it has since evolved into an all-encompassing slogan that secondarily promotes individuality, expressionism, local art, as well as atypical lifestyle choices and leisure activities. The slogan frequently inspires articles and debate that attempt to quantify the exact level to which Portland is considered weird , unusual or eccentric. The slogan has been called the unofficial motto of Portland, as well as the informal mantra of the city's residents. History The slogan was created with the intention of supporting local businesses and small business owners. It was based on the Keep Austin Weird organization and slogan in Austin , Texas , and was brought to Portland in 2003 by Music Millennium owner Terry Currier after he learned of
Thomas Denning " Tom " DeLeone (August 13, 1950 – May 22, 2016) was an American football center who played thirteen seasons in the National Football League , with the Cleveland Browns and Cincinnati Bengals . He grew up in Kent, Ohio and graduated from Theodore Roosevelt High School in 1968, where he was on the football, basketball, and track teams. He played college football at Ohio State University , where he was a starting center and an All-Big Ten and first-team All-American selection. He later went on to work as a criminal investigator with the U.S. Department of the Treasury rising to a Senior Special Agent position within the U.S. Customs Service . He worked in the US Customs Service, and he was a member of the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force in Salt Lake City, Utah, during the 2002 Olympic Games in Park City, Utah. In 2003, The U.S. Customs Service became a part of the newly created Department of Homeland Security and he retired from Immigration and Customs Enforcement in 2007. He is a 2002 inductee
The threat of terrorism in Kazakhstan plays an increasingly important role in relations with the United States which in 2006 were at an all-time high. Kazakhstan has taken Uzbekistan 's place as the favored partner in Central Asia for both Russia and the United States. Kazakhstan's counter-terrorism efforts resulted in country's 94th ranking among 130 countries in the 2016 Global Terrorism Index published by the Institute of Economics and Peace. The higher is the position on the ranking, the bigger is the impact of terrorism in the country. Kazakhstan's 94th place puts it in a group of countries with the lowest impact of terrorism. Banned terrorist organizations On 12 October 2006 the Supreme Court approved a revised list of banned terrorist organizations and the Prosecutor General released the list. The terrorist organizations the government has banned are the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan , Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami , Jamaat of Central Asian Mujahedins , Islamic Party of Eastern Turkestan , Kurdistan W
Albert Grajales was the assistant director of the Puerto Rico INTERPOL office . Early years Grajales was born in Brooklyn, New York , in 1962, and at the age of six his family and him moved to Aguadilla, Puerto Rico . Albert was a Sergeant Major at the US Jr. Army of the American Crusaders Cadets. In high school he was for three years the president of Distributive Education Clubs of America - DECA (organization) where he won the national DECA male leader of Puerto Rico. He was an advocate for Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) and the youth republican party of Puerto Rico. Law enforcement and Intelligence career As the Special Assistant to the attorney general of Puerto Rico Guillermo Somoza Colombani, Albert Grajales was the INTERPOL assistant director in the Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico . He was also the Coordinator of Intelligence and Anti-terrorism (CIA) representing the Justice Department and the Governor office. He was in charge of all investigative operations of intelligence and counter int
Task Force 11 (TF 11 or alternately Commander Task Force 11, CTF 11) is a designation that has been used by the United States armed forces for two separate units. World War II During World War II , Task Force 11 was a United States Navy aircraft carrier task force in the Pacific theater . After the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Destroyer Squadron 1 was attached to the Task Force under Vice Admiral Wilson Brown , made up of USS Lexington (CV-2) with cruisers USS Indianapolis (CA-35) , USS Chicago (CA-29) and USS Portland (CA-33) . On 14 December 1941, after delays due to bad weather, the task force cleared Pearl Harbor as a diversion for an expedition under Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher in Saratoga (CV 3) to relieve Wake Island. TF 11 was originally formed around Lexington , then her sister ship Saratoga until she was disabled by a Japanese torpedo in January 1942, then Lexington again for the Battle of the Coral Sea , then Saratoga after her repairs were completed. TF 11 – as part of Task Force 6
David Wayne Hull is a leader of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan , which is considered the most militant as well as the most violent Ku Klux Klan in history. Hull was indicted in March 2003 for, witness tampering, and instructing persons on procedures for creating destructive devices. Hull threatened minorities and workers and patients at abortion clinics . He had built and detonated improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during KKK events, and was recorded instructing individuals on how to place IEDs to cause maximum damage. A jury in western Pennsylvania convicted Hull on seven counts of a ten-count indictment. On February 25, 2005, he was sentenced to 12 years in prison, followed by three years of probation. Hull's criminal record dates back to 1994. He was arrested by the Pittsburgh Joint Terrorism Task Force , which consists of federal, state and local law enforcement agencies. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, Hull published a newsletter in which he urged readers to write Timothy McVeigh
Iraqi Special Operations Forces ( ISOF ) ( Arabic : قوات العمليات الخاصة العراقية ), commonly known as the Golden Division , are Iraqi special forces unit created by coalition forces after the 2003 invasion . The forces, directed by the Iraqi Counter Terrorism Service, consist of the Iraqi Counter Terrorism Command, which has three brigades subordinate to it. The Counter Terrorism Service (Jihaz Mukafahat al-Irhab, originally translated as Counter Terrorism Bureau) is funded by the Iraq Ministry of Defence . History Special operations troops in the old Iraqi army were first established when Colonel Khaleel Jassim Al-Dabbagh built the first royal special units in the name of "Queen Alia Forces" in the mid 1950s. It consisted of Sunni, Shia Arabs and other components of Iraqi population. They were mainly used on an emergency basis to carry out special missions inside of Iraq and outside when the country was in war. After the Invasion in 2003, Iraqi forces were made redundant by the Invasion forces and becaus
Ahmed Ibrahim Bilal was a member of a terrorist group dubbed the Portland Seven , some members of which attempted to travel to Afghanistan shortly after the September 2001 attack on the World Trade Center ( 9/11 ) to aid the Taliban . He was indicted and arrested in Malaysia in October 2002. In 2003 he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment on gun charges and for conspiracy to aid the Taliban in fighting the multinational force in Iraq . He was released on June 27, 2011. Ahmed Bilal and the Portland Seven Patrice Lumumba Ford , Jeffrey Leon Battle , October Martinique Lewis (Battle's ex-wife), his brother Muhammad Ibrahim Bilal , Maher "Mike" Hawash , and Habis Abdulla al Saoub were the original seven members wanted by the US FBI . According to the FBI, in plea agreements Muhammad and Ahmed Bilal admitted to engaging in martial arts and firearms training to prepare themselves for military jihad in Afghanistan or elsewhere: “ Both defendants [Muhammad and Ahmed Bilal] admit that on Oct. 20, 2001, while U.S. m
The National Special Operations Force (NSOF) ( Malay : Pasukan Operasi Khusus Nasional ) is Malaysia 's main security force which serves as the first responder to any terror threats on the country's sovereignty. The force covers elements from the Malaysian Armed Forces , Royal Malaysia Police and the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency . NSOF is the third Task Force attached to the National Security Council (NSC) ( Malay : Majlis Keselamatan Negara Malaysia; MKN ) after the Federal Special Task Force (PPKPS/L) and Special Malaysia Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team (SMART). History / Roles NSOF Team during hostage rescue demonstration. NSOF CQC Team during Close quarters combat training at kill house . From left: First two operators are from Malaysian Army GGK , third operator from Royal Malaysian Police UTK while fourth and fifth are from Royal Malaysian Navy PASKAL . Formed on 27 October 2016 by Prime Minister Najib Razak , the NSOF will serve as the nation's security forces first responders against al
United States Army Africa (USARAF) , also known as the Southern European Task Force (SETAF) , is the United States Army service component command of United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM or AFRICOM). USARAF's headquarters are located on Caserma Ederle and Caserma Del Din, Vicenza , Italy. The current commanding officer|commanding general of USARAF is Major General (United States) Major General (MG) Joseph P. Harrington. SETAF, now known as USARAF/SETAF has been stationed in Italy since 1955 and has a long history of operating on the African continent and partnering with African nations. During the past 15 years, SETAF has provided crisis response, disaster relief and humanitarian assistance on the continent. On December 3, 2008 in Rome, Italy, an official announcement by the U.S. and Italian governments stated that SETAF would become USARAF, and one week later on December 9, 2008 USARAF was established as the Army Service Component Command of AFRICOM. According to the Army Times, this marked the end of the